This project is designed to develop your research skills. If you haven’t yet begun to generate
some ideas for possible approaches to Assignment Three, then this exercise could be a good
Using the internet, local library, museum or any other resources at your disposal, conduct
a short investigation into a historical aspect of the area in which you live or are currently
based. This could relate to industry or other narratives in the distant past, or a more recent
event. Don’t spend more than half a day.
Gather some primary sources such as copies of photographs, illustrations, maps, written/oral
accounts, and write a brief account (around 300 words) describing what you’ve researched
and any ideas you have about how this subject might be photographed today in a project
such as Assignment Three.
I started my research looking at local visitor sites like Get-Surrey; In my head, I have been pondering assignment three, trying to decide what it meant to go from a space to a place. I had decided that often there are spaces that are not used for much and then something is built that turns it into a place, like a housing estate built on a field, my own house was part of construction built on an old swampy bit of ground before I was born. It occurred to me that parks and recreation grounds are often like this. My research ion all the local visitor sites kept turning up the Sculpture Park in Farnham. It is a large area with a lake in the middle that is filled with sculptures, most of which are for sale. This park has taken a portion of land and scattered it with sculptures making a wonderful place to visit even if you don’t want to buy any sculpture. It is also home to several active sculptors who generate much of the work shown. A great number of pieces come from all over the globe to rest here until sold, making it a very interesting place indeed. The following are the links to the sites I visited during the research:
Find three examples of landscape photographs (or the collective efforts of a set of
photographs) that are being used to assert a particular ideological point of view. Look
at images that have been used in advertising or other commercial applications, as well
as within fine art and documentary photography. This might be a very explicit message,
or something a lot subtler. If text is used, consider how this relates to the image. In
your learning log, make some brief comments (around 300 words) describing how the
photographer or designer used the photograph and how the image communicates its
Consider an issue (social, political or environmental) that you feel strongly about.
Design an image that you think will have a persuasive effect upon a viewer. This
could be a deliberately rough photomontage or something more polished. You don’t
necessarily need to make the photograph or tableau; this is an exercise in generating
ideas, thinking about communicating an idea and taking an ideological standpoint.
Annotate sketches and any other work and enter it into your learning log.
If you’re struggling with this exercise, you may find it helpful to read ahead to the ‘Landscape
and advertising’ project in Part Four.
Looking for examples, I was reminded of some of the cigarette adverts of the ’70s which ended up being banned because they made outlandish claims like cool as a mountain stream for a twist of paper full of leaves that you set fire too. So I looked some of these out and found the following:
In all three images, the designer is using outdoors activities and idyllic landscape to add glamour to a product that is the opposite of the things portrayed. Tobacco companies needed to add glamour in their advertising because in reality, breathing the smoke from burning leaves is a senseless act. By adding rugged cowboys and tough men fishing and driving off-road vehicles as well as people hiking up a mountain stream, puffing on cigarettes made the act of smoking seem glamorous.
What I find quite perverse is that using the product will shorten your life and stop you doing all these things and yet for years phrases like Cool as a mountain stream did not strike the advertising standards council as wrong. It shows the power that was once wielded by the tobacco companies, a grip they lost by the demonisation of smoking, leaving them no longer commanding such respect.
In the UK we move closer and closer to a Nanny state which continues to wind me up, the height of this was for me the ruling that you may only buy Paracetamol in boxes of 16 and you may only buy two at a time because it is possible to eat dozens of them and kill yourself. This is something that is not prevented by the ruling as if anyone wants to kill themselves they can just buy lots two at a time and even go into several shops, the people who are genuinely hurt by this are people like myself and my late mother who take them quite legitimately once a day because they are in lots of pain. We have to keep running back and forth to the chemists to buy them. I can not begin to tell you how much this law PISSES ME OFF (rude words and capitals to make it seem like a cause that I am really into) so I have created an image using some rued montage to show how I think this campaign could be represented:
Exercise 3.3 ‘Late photography’
Read David Campany’s essay ‘Safety in Numbness’ (see ‘Online learning materials and
student-led research’ at the start of this course guide). Summarise the key points of the
essay and note down your own observations on the points he raises.
Look at some of Meyerowitz’s images available online from Aftermath: World Trade
Centre Archive (2006). Consider how these images differ from your own memories of
the news footage and other images of the time. Write a short response to the work
(around 300 words), noting what value you feel this ‘late’ approach has.
That photography was assumed to be a better medium than television to record the aftermath of 9/11.
That while the Meyrowittz images were ordered and held together in the exhibition and the book there is a likelihood that history will fragment this and they will find their own way of representing events and that the desired control of this will be lost to time.
Photography is becoming used more often to document the aftermath of events.
Photography has inherited a major role as an undertaker to events.
Photography is assumed to be connected to memory which has developed from mass media using photography to freeze a moment.
This has cemented the notion that photographs are a snapshot of an instant in history where film has come to represent the now of an event.
From the 20’s photographers used the advance in technology to be in the moment of an event where the goal was to be in the right place at the right time as things happened. this lasted until the 1970’s when portable video took this mantel
Today it is rare that photographs break the news, the newspaper is often the only a second wave of the news.
Cinema developed an Idea of stillness in photography
In the era of photojournalism the speedy compact camera and the the photographers quick reaction and ability to be in the right place at the right time gave rise to the “Decisive Moment”
Videography took away this monopoly with stoppable repeatable cheap quick material.
The announcement of the death of photojournalism he claims are premature as photography had to sketch out a new pace for itself
He reflects over the history of photojournalism
Vietnam is regarded as the last photographers war
The Gulf War was described as the first war experienced by simulation using satellite images an missile cameras. Very few photographers covered this conflict.
After the war lots of photographers went in to cover the aftermath.
Photography discovered that the sombre quite reflective nature was somewhat seductive in its melancholy
Today more than half of the photographs used are screen grabs from digital sources
Two points from this 1. The lines between video and photography are more blurred 2. Photography is finding other roles to fulfil such as the aftermath.
He reflects that Meyrowitz stated that he was performing an automatic process in which creativity is avoidable and notes that a man with his skill set has a second nature that can’t avoid making beautiful images.
Late photography has become a vehicle for mass mourning or working through.
He points out that this kind of mourning can get a bit aestheticized and indifferent.
Certainly the late photograph is often used as a vehicle for mass mourning or working through (Meyerowitz’ Ground Zero project was produced primarily for New Yorkers). The danger is that it can also foster an indifference and political withdrawal that masquerades as concern. Mourning by association becomes merely an aestheticized response. There is a sense in which the late photograph in all its silence, can easily flatter the ideological paralysis of those who gaze at it with a lack of social or political will to make sense of its circumstance. In its apparent finitude and muteness it can leave us in permanent limbo, obliterating even the need for analysis and bolstering a kind of liberal melancholy that shuns political explanation like a vampire shuns garlic.
If the banal matter-of-factness of the late photograph can fill us with a sense of the sublime, it is imperative that we think through why this might be. There is a fine line between the banal and the sublime, and it is political. If an experience of the contemporary sublime derives from our being caught in a geo-political circumstance beyond our comprehension, then it is a politically reified as much as an aesthetically rarefied one.
Safety in Numbness: Some remarks on the problems of ‘Late Photography’ by David Campany
Exercise 3.2 Postcard views
Gather a selection of postcards (6-12) that you’ve either bought yourself or received from other people. If you don’t have any, then try to borrow some from other people, or see what you can find on an internet search. Write a brief evaluation (around 300 words) of the merits of the images you find. Importantly, consider whether, as Fay Godwin remarked, these images bear any relation to your own experience of the places depicted in the postcards.
Write a brief response (around 200 words) to Graham Clarke’s comments above. Do you think it’s possible not to be a ‘tourist’ or ‘outsider’ as the maker of landscape images?
I managed to find ten postcards that had been sent to us over some time, I have been to all of the destinations except Sorento and Pompei. Of the places, I have been the images, on the whole, seem to me to represent the location all be it in the most appealing way. It is almost impossible to see the Trevi Fountain with no people swarming around it. When I went to photograph it myself, it was necessary to push to the edge of the water to take an image not blocked by the tourists. Likewise, the images of the Colosseum are free from tourists. The night shot of the Colosseum is also very over saturated and coloured and bears no real relationship with the real experience. I find the two images of Venice to remind me very strongly of the place the one of Grand Canal again does not reflect the colour as I remember it and looks a little bit like a painting. I do feel that postcards are taken to look appealing and to show the most romantic view of a place to convey the message don’t you wish you came here. I suppose they are designed by the tourism industry to encourage more people to come and spend their money. The image of Guildford though an old photo surprisingly still feels like the place though many of the shops have changed the felling is still the same. This may be amplified by the cobblestone high street still being in place making Guildford feel like an older town as in the picture. The Isle of Wight postcard is typical to me of those trashy seaside town memories, it does very little to depict the place but is exactly what you expect to find in a seaside shop.
In response to Graham Clarke
I do identify with Graham Clarke’s words, many of the postcards displayed here are taken from a privileged angle, at a time when there are no people, this fact alone makes the image seem privileged. However, A tourist would rarely be given this kind of privilege so rather than truly being the perspective of a tourist it would seem to reflect a level of privilege that could only be gained by someone with authority. The last part of the question gives me pause, “Do you think it is possible to not be a tourist or outsider as the maker of Landscape images?”. It strikes me that the act of going somewhere to find a view and document it with a camera, is the essence of tourism so I struggle to find a situation where I would say yes to this, other than when taking the image as part of the machine of tourism while holding a special privilege in terms of access. By nature, the latter is a form of tourism as it is done to stoke the machine of tourism. I do, however, leave my self ready to be contradicted if someone has an explanation that overrides my thoughts. I do wonder if the answer matters in the grand scheme of things other than as an academic debate for budding degree students.
Exercise 3.1: Reflecting on the picturesque
Write a short reflective account of your own views on the picturesque (around 300 words). Consider how the concept of the picturesque has influenced your own ideas about landscape art, and in particular your ideas about what constitutes an effective or successful landscape photograph.
When thinking about the picturesque, I usually think about the works of artists such as Constable and Turner. My interpretation is that of a scene that is peaceful and pretty, such as the rolling countryside or depictions of nature. I understand that the Picturesque is not limited to this, however, this is my mental image, of a picturesque scene.
While I enjoy such images, they are not my subject of choice, when creating my own art. I like many am guilty of letting the word picturesque influence my view on what constitutes a landscape image. This view is reinforced by the landscape view encapsulated by the Royal Photographic Society, the PAGB and other institutions that adjudicate photographic competitions that almost have a formula for a landscape.
I tend to think of a landscape as something broken into layers, with a strong foreground, and an epic middle, or far ground, epitomised by the work of photographers, like Ansel Adams. I feel that for a landscape to be successful it needs a subject, be it a landmark like a waterfall, river or mountain, or some other structure, like a bridge or building. I am not keen on landscape images that are just bands of light and colour, though I do appreciate the work. If I am honest, I enjoy a landscape with more detail, like a broken-down castle, old wall or a bridge. I probably like the cliché of a landscape; However, I do really enjoy images that divert wildly from these norms, and probably away from the picturesque. My personal preference, would be to create a landscape image with more of a fantasy feel, maybe even a dark overtone, rather than the pretty chocolate box covers that do so well in Camera Club Competitions.
In a similar manner to Richard Long’s ‘textworks’ (see www.richardlong.org), write down 12 – 24 brief observations during a short walk or journey by some means of transport. This may be the journey you intend to make for Assignment Two, or it may be a different one. You don’t need to take any photographs.
This exercise is designed to help you think about text as an alternative or additional means of expression, and to provide an opportunity to experiment with presenting text creatively.
A Walk Along the Blackwater Valley Route
The old lane has mostly been taken over by the gardens of the residents who bought it leaving only a very narrow pathway down to the river.
The bridge over the Blackwater has been replaced since I was a boy and the narrow concrete and steel construction that scared us as children has been replaced by a wider wooden construction.
Old Smithy’s place is now a woods all traces of the caravan are gone and in spring it is a bluebell woods. He was a strange old man living like a hermit the full impact of who and what he was, was lost on us as small children.
The Blackwater Valley Route now runs along the river bank, this used to be part of the HTH Sand Pit
They have made a path out of Tarmac that now runs along or as close to the bank as it can this has made it a nice place to walk and is now a route for runners and dog walkers.
The river bubbles along looking so clean now, there are even fish in it. When I was a boy it was an evil frothing soup of chemicals and industrial slurry and was a dangerous looking rusty brown colour.
The houses all along the estate that have become so familiar to me over the past 53 years look strange from behind and it is hard to tell which house belongs to whom, even my own house looks strange on the opposite bank.
The trees at one point have grown over the river to form an arching canopy of foliage that the river runs serenely beneath.
The path bends away from the river while the fence on the right bars entry to the fishing lakes that occupy the old sand pit, which has been divided by the new road.
The path runs close to the road and high fences stop hooligans throwing things into the road as it cuts the landscape into two.
Ahead looms a concrete and brick structure that resembles an underpass from an urban landscape.
The underpass takes us beneath the Basingstoke canal which has been preserved by constructing a huge aqueduct.
The Blackwater Valley Route runs under the Canal and ascends to the towpath via a set of zigzag pathways that rise over twenty feet to the waiting canal and towpath above.
The Blackwater Valley Route now merges with the Canal Towpath for several hundred feet as we cross over the A331 to the other side.
As we cross the A331 I witness something of a marvel of modern engineering, the canal has been preserved with concrete and steel as it hangs over the road and huge swinging dams have been built to move into place should they need to remove the water from over the road to maintain the Aquaduct.
From the middle of the Aqueduct, there is a great view of the surrounding landscape and we can see the Road the A331 that stretches out in both directions like a huge scar on the landscape of my childhood, dividing places that can no longer be crossed on foot.
The Route descends on the opposite side of the Aqueduct and takes a zigzag path down to the side of the river and becomes the Blackwater Valley route again.
Somehow the river has crossed the road as well though I realise that I have no idea how this has been achieved.
Joining back with the river the path once again runs along its bank and the rather pretty fishing lake is visible to the right.
The route has to cross, Government road through a series of gates and a dash across the road to the other side. As we move along the path we find we can go no further for the moment as there is a dispute by the landowner with the builders of the path who he says had no right or permission to build a path across his land.
Consider how you might present your observations
I saw a text-based display at the 2012 Brighton Photo Biennial. It was a project by Michael David Murphy called “Unphotographable” each piece was a text-based item that started “This is a picture I did not take” it was born out of a trip to some Muslim countries where he was advised not to take his camera. at the Time I found the work rather powerful as each piece created a picture in my head that was unique to me. I think that the way he displayed each piece on a series of sheets of paper that built the image was a very strong way to present work like this and so I feel that I would look at his work as a way of inspiring my own attempt
Is it appropriate to use other people’s images in your own work? As the image above suggests this presents something of a dilemma.
On one hand, it is morally wrong to use the work of others without permission that is quite a clear cut in my own mind if I think about my own work I would be quite outraged if someone used my work without asking first especially if they made a profit out of doing so. This seems to me to be quite clear-cut, but what if there is no clue who made the work, well still clear cut to me it’s still someone else’s work.
On the other hand compositing images is fun I do it a lot, I have been known to need an element for an image like a pair of lips or a dragons eye, which I don’t have in my own images, what do I do then? Well if it is just me playing I might get it from a google image search, but not for a commercial piece of work, in that case I would have to seek permission from the owner or use an image service like Getty or Alamay or use one of the ever-growing resources like deviant art where you can get free and purchasable resources.
I truly believe that this kind of artwork is justifiable and valid but I also think that as a working professional photographer we have to respect the IPR of our fellow practitioners. It is worth looking at this youtube broadcast from Tony and Chelsea Northrup who sued an Australian company for using one of their images.
The offending company ended up paying $60,000 but the Northrups ended up being paid $7,543.48 the rest went to the lawyers the whole process took something like 3 years and demonstrates what a minefield this subject is. It will cost you if you are caught stealing images but don’t expect to be well compensated for having your image stolen after all in the end as the saying goes its only the lawyers that win.
Typology sees to raise its head in every module I have studied so far and you can see much of what I think about it and about practitioners like Bernd and Hilla Beecher who I have studied in detail in the blogs of my past modules. I must confess I had not associated Typology with Landscape until this point, though I don’t really understand why as the link is clear and in fact, much of the work I looked at was a landscape in one form or another.
In general, I would say I am rather keen on typology and I love to make a nine by nine panel of typological similies which I have done on several occasions in the course of my degree. As an Engineer turned artist I do like the idea or order and of sorting things into classes and types, I am a really big fan of Hans Eijkelboom’s work people of the Twenty-First Century which is an enormous collection of typologies of people.
To move into the Landscape topic I decided to take a look at the work of Robert Adams. Initially, they made me react like a slug finding the salt as they seemed to me to be of the vernacular type I loathe, but I saw a Youtube clip on the New Typologies:
In this film, he talks about Adams and points out the way his images are split in two with one part being a classic nature landscape reminiscent of the work of Ansel Adams and the other half contains buildings, mobile homes and other modern (in the 1970’s) constructions. I started to really look at Adams work and saw this contrast in many of the images he made and found myself starting to like the whole concept. what for me had originally looked like something taken straight from my Mums Kodak Instamatic now takes on a richer and deeper meaning the images have far more depth and feeling than those old family snaps.
I am finding that I started this degree with some strange photographic prejudice and that the layers of this are slowly being peeled back to reveal a deeper understanding of the subject matter, I guess I am starting to see my own ignorance for what it is/was and have begun to throw it out in favour of a more enlightened understanding. I assume this is an indicator that the course is working and I am learning something. It does make me realise that I should challenge every fixed idea I have and look beneath the surface for the real answers. This was a strangely provocative exercise, I am not certain it was designed that way but it was very effective in making me look inward and see the need for change.
Whether you live in an isolated village or a city centre, roads are something we all have in common. Make a short series of photographs about a road near where you live. You may choose to photograph the street you live or work on or another nearby. How you choose to approach this task is your decision, but use this exercise to develop the observational skills that will be challenged in Assignment Two. The objective is to try to think about something that is familiar to you in a different way. You don’t need to make any preparations for this exercise. Work intuitively, and try not to labour the exercise. Compile a digital contact sheet from your shoot and evaluate your work, identifying images of particular interest – to you or, potentially, to a wider audience. <BLANK SPACE>
Watch one of the films mentioned in this section or any other ‘road movie’ of your choice. Write a short review (around 500 words), focusing on how the road features within the film’s narrative. <BLANK SPACE>
Make a short series of photographs:
I chose to photograph my own road, I was born here moved away when I bought my own house and moved back when I inherited my parent’s house so there are around 53 years of memories in this place.
I took the images on a walk without much setup or fuss, I wanted to be true to the brief and shoot freely. When I got them home I chose nine of them and in an hommage, to the work I have been studying of the photographers of the mid 19th century I created an analogue effect on them:
This is the entire contact sheet:
Watch a Road Movie and write a 500 Word Critique
The movie I chose to watch is called Two Lane Blacktop and here is my critique:
Two Lane Blacktop
Two lane blacktop is one of the most iconic cult road films ever made, the film focuses on the road more than the characters who do not even have names. The story is loosely based on a race across America for “pink slips”. The film’s opening is just over 6 minutes long before anyone even speaks. Our two “heroes” are two small-town car freaks who ride around Route 66 in a souped-up, ‘55 Chevy, painted in Grey Primer, looking for like-minded petrol heads to race.
The film is centred around the race between the Chevy and a GTO, however, it focuses more on the road which is depicted in two ways, firstly the drag strip or raceway which is the destination of each trip along the road and the source of income for our “heroes” and secondly as a home and a means of connecting all of the destinations. Their world is something that is familiar because of the influence of American films like “Bonnie and Clyde,” “Easy Rider” and “American Grafitti” it is populated by the typical Americana style establishments that have slowely been creeping into our culture over the years. The road is like one of those Hollywood film sets where all the buildings are just flat boards, in that all we see are the diners, motels, gas stations and hamburger stands that live along the road and we are not taken in further to see what lays behind. The road takes on an identity of its own in this film making us beleive that it is in itself a place to live and not just a method of moving from A to B. As far as our “heros” are concerned the road is home.
The focus of the film as mentioned before is on the surface of it a race to Washington, however, this is not really true as no one competing in the race seems at all interested in winning, or indeed focused on getting to Washington at all. The real focus is on the road and the nomadic lifestyle that everyone in the movie seems to lead. In fact we never learn who won the race as we never seem to get to Washington by the end of the film which closes as the Chevy takes off on the drag strip one last time and the film closes with an image of the celluloid burning away from the middle.
We are led to hope that there will be a love interest as the two heroes pick up “the girl” somewhere near the beginning of the film but no one seems to succeed in forming a relationship with her, though her part is probably one of the things that makes the film.
Two Lane Blacktop has become a cult road film, that did not perform as well as it should at the box office probably due to its proximity to some other films like Easy Rider stealing its thunder, it is however still the go to move for every petrol head and car freak and remains a cult classic.
Read Snyder’s essay ‘Territorial Photography’ which you’ll find on the student website (see ‘Online learning materials and student-led research’ at the start of this course guide). Summarise Snyder’s key points.
Next, find and evaluate two photographs by any of the photographers Snyder mentions, but not specific examples that he addresses in the essay. Your evaluation (up to 250 words for each) should reflect some of the points that Snyder makes, as well as any other references.
In the beginning, photography was seen as precise and mechanical, handmade images were seen as more spiritual, Snyder thinks that this may have been more of a reaction to industrialization in general than from any threat perceived by artists. Snyder in his essay describes two distinct styles of landscape photography that emerged between 1850 and 1870 in the midwest of America. These were based on two different viewpoints, that of the businessmen who wanted to make the territory more appealing to settlers which Snyder termed “Invitational” Photography (Snyder, 2002, p189) which Snyder claims is demonstrated in the work of Carlton E. Watkins (1829 – 1916). The counterpoint to this was Snyder dubbed “Contra-Invitational” was demonstrated in the works of Tim O’Sullivan, which showed the landscape as a bleak and more hostile place that was less inviting to prospective settlers.
I have chosen to contrast two pictures, one Yosemite Valley, from the Mariposa trail (1865/66) by Carlton E. Watkins with an image titled “Quarters of men in Fort Sedgwick, known as Fort Hell” (1865) by Tim O’Sullivan.
Yosemite Valley, from the Mariposa trail (1865/66) by Carlton E. Watkins
This first image by Carleton Watkins shows a beautiful Valley looking into Yosemite Valley, it depicts a lush green and pleasant land with plenty of water exemplified by the presence of Bridal Fall on the right third of the picture. This image conforms to all the conventions of classic Landscape Photography which, the work of Watkins had a big hand in defining. It is tempting to liken it to the work of Ansel Adams but in truth, it is the other way around as Watkins was one of the inspirations for Adams work. The overt purpose of this picture was as a geological survey but as the article connected to this picture points out it is far more than that, Watkins must have gone to great lengths to compose this image and achieve something inviting and pleasing which would inevitably encourage people to visit. In this scene the foreground is dominated by the large round boulders, he as created a beautiful recession with distinct layers as we move into the image along the valley, captured in the distance are the famous icons of the Half Dome and El Capitan, all placed expertly in the frame giving credence to the idea of very careful composition. Snyder claims that Watkins created these images without realising he was conforming to the rules of Landscape painting and that his fans either did not see this or did not want to, preferring to subscribe to the mechanical view of photography.
Quarters of Men In Fort Sedgwick, Known as Fort Hell (1865) by Tim O’Sullivan
As can be seen from this image O’Sullivan depicts a more hostile environment, this composition is of Fort Sedgwick which was known as Fort Hell, the image depicts some very rough living quarters and is surrounded by fortifications and staked fencing. The living conditions look hard and rough, it feels like a desert and there is not much evidence of water the only obvious vegetation is a tree which looks in a very sorry state further reinforcing the idea that this is a tough dry place to live built of logs mud and skins, the entire fort looks like a shanty town built from whatever could be found at the time. O’Sullivan’s work was conducted during the first expeditions made without military control and was done under the scientific premise of documenting and surveying, it was not fueled by the need to sell the garden of Eden ideal to the viewer. Oddly although O’Sullivan was done by a scientific brief the chiefs did not think the images would be good enough for the survey and so they took an army of draughtsmen as well. Osullavans images were used to illustrate the reports written about the territory.
By contrast, this image would not likely encourage people to visit the area, unlike the previous image that was driven by the business ideologies behind it to expand and develop the resources in the area. Snyder comments that Ansel Adams found some of O’Sullivan’s images and described them as “technically deficient, even by the standards of the time, but nonetheless, surrealistic and disturbing” (Snyder, 2002, p192) which led to O’Sullivan being entered into the modernist history of photography where he has remained ever since.